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精品推荐:青花龙凤罐

2021-05-31 14:31:28 来源:网络

【藏品名称】:青花龙凤罐

[collection name]: blue and white Dragon Phoenix can

【藏品类别】:瓷器

[collection type]: porcelain

【藏品数量】:一件

[collection quantity]: one piece

【藏品鉴赏】:原始青花瓷于唐宋已见端倪,成熟的青花瓷则出现在元代景德镇的湖田窑。明代青花成为瓷器的主流,清康熙时发展到了顶峰。明清时期,还创烧了青花五彩、孔雀绿釉青花、豆青釉青花、青花红彩、黄地青花、哥釉青花等衍生品种。元青花在以青瓷和白瓷单色釉为主流的中国宋瓷基础上,推陈出新地研制出以蓝色釉彩基调为主、繁纹叠彩构图形式呈现的瓷艺新品,具有全新的审美标准和瓷种类型。

[collection appreciation]: the original blue and white porcelain appeared in the Tang and Song Dynasties, while the mature blue and white porcelain appeared in the Hutian kiln of Jingdezhen in the Yuan Dynasty. Blue and white porcelain became the mainstream in Ming Dynasty, and reached its peak in Kangxi period of Qing Dynasty. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, it also created and burned blue and white, peacock green glaze blue and white, bean green glaze blue and white, blue and white red color, yellow ground blue and white, Ge glaze blue and white and other derivative varieties.On the basis of Song Dynasty porcelain, which is dominated by celadon and white monochrome glaze, Yuan blue and white porcelain developed new porcelain products with blue glaze tone as the main theme and multiple patterns in the form of superimposed color composition, with new aesthetic standards and porcelain types.

元青花大改传统瓷器含蓄内敛的风格,以鲜明的视觉效果,给人以简明的快感,构图丰满,层次多而不乱,笔法以一笔点划多见,流畅有力,勾勒渲染则粗壮沉着。并且以其大气豪迈的气概和艺术原创精神,将青花绘画艺术推向顶峰,确立了后世青花瓷的繁荣与长久不衰。这件元青花龙纹大罐为元代瓷器,发色为标准的靛蓝色,圆口丰肩、短颈、瘦底、圈足。通体白釉如玉,釉下绘青花纹饰,青花呈色浓艳,绘枝精致,主次分明。

Blue and white porcelain of the Yuan Dynasty greatly changed the implicit and introverted style of traditional porcelain. With distinct visual effect, it gives people a simple pleasure. The composition is full, with many levels but not chaos. The strokes are common with one stroke, smooth and powerful, and the outline and rendering are thick and calm. And with its heroic spirit and artistic original spirit, blue and white painting art to the peak, established the prosperity of blue and white porcelain of later generations.This blue-and-white dragon shaped jar of the Yuan Dynasty is porcelain of the Yuan Dynasty. Its hair color is standard indigo blue. It has a round mouth and shoulders, a short neck, a thin bottom and round feet. The whole body is white glaze like jade. Underglaze blue and white patterns are painted. The blue and white are rich in color, and the painting branches are exquisite, with clear primary and secondary.

 

外壁自上而下以青花双弦线把纹样分成5层。口边饰花纹带,胫部饰变体花瓣一周,腹部绘云龙纹。龙体矫健,龙爪锋利,昂首怒视,龙睛圆睁,健曲身,翻腾旋飞于天际,形象遒劲生动传神,气势磅礴,龙身周围点缀流云数朵,以简洁洗练的手法来增强其清秀的表现力。此器造型秀美,做工细腻,洁白而坚致,釉面光亮莹润,纯净无瑕,白中微闪青,色泽淡雅,达到了纹饰主宾协调,繁而不乱,层次丰厚,构图谨慎,又不失壮美之举。并且保存完好,是一件不可多得的元代青花标准器,收藏价值大。元青花瓷造型独具特色。从制作工艺上看,出现了胎体厚重的巨大形体,如大罐、大瓶、大盘、大碗等。但也有精细之作,如胎体轻薄的高足碗、高足杯、匜、盘等。总之元青花瓷器造型既有恢弘雄伟的大器,又有秀美灵巧的小器,不论何种器型均形态优美,古朴端庄。

 

 

元青花的图案惟妙惟肖。元青花主题纹饰的题材有人物、动物、植物、诗文等。人物有高士图(四爱图)、历史人物等;动物有龙凤、麒麟、鸳鸯、游鱼等;植物常见的有牡丹、莲花、兰花、松竹梅、灵芝、花叶、瓜果等;诗文极少见。所画牡丹的花瓣多留白边;龙纹为小头、细颈、长身、三爪或四爪、背部出脊、鳞纹多为网格状,矫健而凶猛。辅助纹饰多为卷草、莲瓣、古钱、海水、回纹、朵云、蕉叶等。莲瓣纹形状似“大括号”,莲瓣中常绘道家杂宝;如意云纹中常绘海八怪或折枝莲花、缠枝花卉,绘三阶云;蕉叶中梗为实心;海水纹为粗线与细线描绘相结合。

The blue and white patterns of the Yuan Dynasty are vivid. The themes of blue and white motifs in Yuan Dynasty include characters, animals, plants, poems and so on. The figures include Gao Shitu (four love pictures), historical figures and so on; Animals include dragon and Phoenix, unicorn, mandarin duck, swimming fish, etc; The common plants are peony, lotus, orchid, Dendrolimus, Ganoderma lucidum, flower leaf, melon and fruit, etc; Poetry is rare. The petals of peony are mostly white; Dragon pattern is small head, thin neck, long body, three or four claws, back ridge, scale pattern is mostly grid shape, vigorous and fierce. Most of the auxiliary patterns are rolled grass, lotus petals, ancient coins, sea water, Huiwen, Duoyun, banana leaves, etc. The shape of lotus petals is like "braces", in which Taoist treasures are often painted; Ruyi cloud pattern is often painted with eight monsters of the sea, broken branches of lotus and tangled branches of flowers, and third-order clouds; The middle stem of banana leaf is solid; The sea water pattern is a combination of thick line and thin line.

最常见的是龙纹图案,瓶身描写的青龙在云中升腾而起。《三国演义》说“龙能大能小,能升能隐;大则兴云吐雾,小则隐介藏形;升则飞扬于宇宙之间,隐则埋伏于波澜以内。方今春深,龙乘时变。”龙是帝皇的标志,意指登峰造极的权力,一起“龙腾”也是祥瑞的标志。此瓶尽管纹饰布局繁密,可是主次清楚,很有元代青花瓷严肃、饱满之感。关于青料方面,元青花瓷器总体分两种色调,一种呈灰蓝色,较浅淡,一种是深蓝色,较艳丽。传统概念中,呈色灰蓝者为国产料,胎骨灰白,胎体手感轻;呈蓝艳者为进口料,胎骨较白,稍含灰,手感沉重,致密坚硬。进口青料用于大型、中型或小型元青花上,国产钴料仅用于中、小型器。除了胎坯、釉色和青花料,烧造工艺也是瓷器制造业很重要的一环。景德镇元代以后的制瓷业就像来过景德镇的法国传教士形容的那样:“白天浓烟遮蔽了云彩,晚上窑火映红了夜空”。

The most common is the dragon pattern, which describes the green dragon rising in the clouds《 In the romance of the Three Kingdoms, it is said that "the dragon can be big and small, can rise and hide; The larger is the cloud, the smaller is the hidden form; Rising is flying in the universe, hidden is lurking in the waves. This spring is deep, and the Dragon ride changes with time. " The dragon is the symbol of the emperor, which means the power to reach the peak. Together with the "dragon" is also a symbol of auspicious. Although the layout of the vase is very complicated, the primary and secondary decoration is clear, which makes the blue and white porcelain of Yuan Dynasty serious and full. As for the green materials, the blue and white porcelain of Yuan Dynasty is generally divided into two colors, one is gray blue, lighter, and the other is dark blue, more gorgeous. In the traditional concept, the color of gray blue is made in China, the fetal bone is gray and the fetal body feels light; The blue one is imported. The fetal bone is white and slightly gray. It feels heavy, dense and hard. Imported green materials are used for large, medium or small yuan blue and white, while domestic cobalt materials are only used for medium and small vessels. In addition to the body, glaze and blue and white materials, firing technology is also a very important part of the porcelain manufacturing industry. The porcelain industry in Jingdezhen after the Yuan Dynasty, as described by the French missionaries who came to Jingdezhen, was "thick smoke covered the clouds in the daytime, and kiln fire reddened the night sky at night".

由于元青花珍稀贵重,寻常百姓难以得见其容,所以在古玩界也一直被认为民间元青花多为赝品,但正如一藏家所说:“元青花的存世量少这是事实,但不会仅仅只有不到400件。”小编也赞同这个说法,就如柴窑虽至今未发现确切窑址,但《格古要论·古窑器论》写道:“柴窑出北地,天青色,滋润细媚有细纹,足多粗黄土,近世少见。”因此也并无人肯定无柴窑之一说。故,民间无元青花之说实难令人信服。中国是世界四大文明古国之一,对人类社会的进步与发展做出了许多重大贡献。在陶瓷技术与艺术上所取得的成就,尤其具有特殊重要意义。在中国,制陶技艺的产生可追溯到纪元前4500年至前2500年的时代,可以说,中华民族发展史中的一个重要组成部分是陶瓷发展史。

As the blue and white of the Yuan Dynasty is rare and precious, it is difficult for ordinary people to see its appearance, so it has been considered that most of the folk blue and white of the Yuan Dynasty are fakes in the antique industry. But as a collector said, "it is true that the number of blue and white of the Yuan Dynasty is small, but not just less than 400." Xiao Bian also agrees with this view. For example, although no exact kiln site has been found yet, the book on ancient kilns and utensils of gegu Yaolun wrote: "the Chai kiln comes out of the north, the sky is blue, moist, fine and beautiful, and there are fine lines. There are plenty of coarse loess, which is rare in modern times." Therefore, no one is sure that there is no wood kiln. Therefore, the folk saying that there is no blue and white yuan is not convincing. China is one of the four ancient civilizations in the world, and has made great contributions to the progress and development of human society. The achievements in ceramic technology and art are of special significance. In China, the emergence of ceramic technology can be traced back to the era of 4500 to 2500 BC. It can be said that an important part of the development history of the Chinese nation is the development history of ceramics.

 

 

 

而中国的青花瓷以湛蓝艳丽的图案、如玉似珍的釉水、细腻洁白的胎土和精美奇巧的造型,并以新瓷种类型的姿态成为后代模仿的典范,能收藏一件真正的青花瓷器,可真是可遇不可求。

Chinese blue and white porcelain, with its brilliant blue patterns, jade like glaze water, delicate and white clay and exquisite and ingenious shapes, has become a model for future generations to imitate with the posture of a new type of porcelain. It's really rare to collect a real blue and white porcelain.

 

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